★ Indochristian art
Indochristian art, Arte indocristiano, this type of Latin American art, which combines European colonial influences with indigenous artistic styles and traditions.
During the Spanish colonization of the Americas Franciscan, Dominican, Augustinian monks and actively converted the indigenous peoples to Christianity, introducing them to European art and aesthetics. The art of this period reflect a synthesis of European and local religious beliefs, aesthetic and artistic traditions.
The term Indochristian art was invented by Constantino Reyes-Valerio, scholar of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican art and culture, in his book, Indochristian art, sculpture and painting of the 16th century in Mexico. Reyes-Valerios work was devoted to the painting and sculpture of the temples and monasteries in New Spain, but has broader implications for the analysis of art throughout Latin America.
1.1. The origin of the term. The coinage of the term Indochristian art. (Чеканки термина Indochristian искусства)
The term indochristian art was invented by Constantino Reyes-Valerio in his work of 1978, Arte indocristiano: how escultura del Siglo XVI, Mexico. This work was supplemented by analysis indochristian paintings, and two books were reissued in combined form in 2000. In this work, Reyes-Valerio indochristian defines art as art that is indigenous in its manufacture, but Christian in its themes, using the term as a designation of artwork that mixes symbolic elements of Christian and pre-Hispanic cultures. Expert in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica sculpture, Reyes-Valerio focuses her research on works of art created in monastic settings in New Spain in the first place, looking at the sculptures and paintings, jewelry and monasteries, as well as the identification of the iconographic links with earlier indigenous works.
Reyes-Valerios coinage of the term indochristian art was based on his 45 years of experience in the study of pre-Columbian and colonial monuments across the country. In tracing the indigenous influence on colonial art, Reyes-Valerio is based on a thorough analysis of the artistic details and motives, the process, which he calls" speaking art”, but supports the analysis of documentary sources such as journals, Augustinian, Franciscan, and Dominican friars.
Reyes-Valerio not only discusses the root of artistic production, but the connection of this art in the educational systems created by European monks. He argues that the use of traditional domestic religious images of Indian artists is a form of rebellion intended to preserve their traditions.
1.2. The origin of the term. Criticism of the term. (Критика термина)
Although the significance Reyes-Valerios contribution to the identification of indigenous iconography in colonial monastic art recognized, a number of critics criticized the implications of the word "indochristian" and Reyes-Valerios analysis of the cultural context in which the art was produced by.
In the book of mestizaje and globalization: transformations of identity and power, Stephanie Wickstrom objected to the use of the term "indochristian". Wickstrom says that the term simplifies the colonial monastery of art and the intentions of the performers on the classification of each element as a Hindu or a Christian in symbolism, not able to explain the evolution of mestizo art as Christian symbolism into contact with new cultures and evolved.
Others opposed Reyes-Valerios discussion of colonization, in the discussion of the colonization of New Spain, Reyes-Valerio makes a controversial statement that the spiritual conquest of Europeans over the indigenous people was more devastating than military conquest. In addition, in his descriptions of the interactions between the monks and the indigenous peoples, Reyes-Valerio focuses primarily on the psychological harm to indigenous peoples because they lose their ancestral religious beliefs, and generally overlook the physical harm caused to them Christian leaders.
1.3. The origin of the term. Related discussion of indigenous art influence. (Обсуждение влияния искусства коренных народов)
Throughout the twentieth century, there are a number of movements to re-evaluate the role of indigenous peoples in the creation of Latin American national identity. In Mexico after the revolution, Indigenismo movement pays great importance to indigenous culture and historic significance. These changes are reflected in the changing attitudes of the art historian in relation to indigenous art and aesthetics. These influence on colonial art has been largely ignored up to this point.
Recognition of indigenous artistic influences are quite diverse, ranging from art historians only gradually acknowledging the influence of indigenous peoples on Mexican colonial art. In 1939, Agustin Velazquez Chavez described the Art of New Spain as the product of the mixing of Indian and Spanish cultures in conflict, the special value" Mexican” nature of this interweaving, the intermingling of cultures. In the description of Churrigueresque art of Mexico, Miguel Toussaint used the term" mestizos,” recognizing indigenous peoples participation in the arts of colonial Mexico.
Term" Tequitqui” was created by josé Moreno Villa to classify works of art with a combination of Spanish and indigenous elements. With this term, which in Nahuatl means" tributary,” Moreno Villa made the comparison between the art of colonial Mexico and the Mudejar Muslims in Spain during the Reconquest. Tequitqui was the first term is used specifically to define art combines colonial and indigenous influences, however, Moreno Villa limited its application to works in which the indigenous artist is atavistic religious symbols. In later works of Moreno Villa develops his interpretation of Mexican colonial art, stating that the indigenous peoples contribution to the genre is limited to non-Christian deities are presented, while claiming that the artistic style of colonial art was not associated with indigenous artistic traditions.
2. Examples Indochristian art. (Примеры Indochristian искусства)
Although the term "indochristian art" was originally used only to describe the Mexican monastery sculptures and frescoes, by definition, this applies to any art that is created by indigenous artists and contains Christian themes. It can be applied to a wide range of artistic traditions from colonial Latin America. The term is becoming increasingly difficult to apply to art in the late colonial and post-colonial period, however, because it is based on a clearly defined confrontation between the indigenous artist and the Euro-Christian themes. By the way, that indochristian art determines the entanglement of native and European identity and the mixing of cultures that gradually develop throughout Latin America.
Religious works from colonial Latin America often exhibit indochristian influence in various ways. Indochristian art often depicts the atavistic deities and religious symbols, Chinese characters, numerals specificities of indigenous and traditional folk clothing, and the local flora and fauna. In addition, it can use traditional artistic styles of representation.
2.1. Examples Indochristian art. Monastic Art. (Монастырский Искусства)
In the first years of colonization, the art was mainly by order of the Church. As Augustinian, Dominican and Franciscan missionaries tried to convert the indigenous population of America, their methods vary, but are often associated with threats of violence. Missionaries usually tried to eliminate the indigenous culture, transforming native people not only to Christianity but to European social practices.
Many monastic Latin American art of the colonial period can be defined as indochristian. Murals, paintings, architectural projects, sculptures, and decorative products are increasingly created by native artisans and included indigenous iconography.
2.2. Examples Indochristian art. Cuzco School. (Куско Школа)
In Cusco the school was the artistic traditions of Cusco, Peru. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spanish religious artists were sent to Cuzco to help in the conversion of the Inca people to Catholicism. This group of artists began a school, teaching Quechua and mestizo people to draw and use oil paints in compliance with European styles.
On the basis of pre-Columbian artistic traditions, Cusqueсo artists have created works anonymously and included local flora and fauna in their works. They have also created a tradition of paintings of monarchs of the Inca – a departure from the Christian religious themes and expression of cultural pride.
2.3. Examples Indochristian art. Angel Arcabucero Arquebusier Angel. (Ангел Arcabucero Arquebusier Ангел)
Angel arcabucero is a genre of painting associated with the Cusco School. These paintings depicted angels holding an arquebus, or early firearms, and dressed in clothes similar to that worn in the Andes of nobility. These angels are believed to be connected to the pre-Hispanic winged warriors.
2.4. Examples Indochristian art. Monja Koronada Crowned Nun. (Монья Коронада Коронован Монашка)
Monja Koronada crowned nun genre portrait paintings circulated among the Mexican monasteries. These memorable portraits of the nuns to wear clothes, Bridal and flower crowns were common in the 18th century. From the European-Christian perspective, the nuns attributes Bridal allude to the virgin Mary crowned, symbolizing mystical marriage with God and victory over sin. However, this Christian symbolism, combined with the Mesoamerican images, pictures often replaces traditional European palm leaves with the staff of the Mesoamerican flower, and the decoration of the crown with flowers according to traditional practices, flower art. In addition, bird and butterfly motif, which is often included in a crowned nun portraits to symbolize fundamental beliefs about the soul and afterlife.
- literature Culteranismo Conceptismo Spanish Baroque art Bodegon Tenebrism Cuzco School Indochristian art Quito School Category: Spanish Baroque painters Spanish
- Indians in the Colonial painting and sculpture he coined the term Indochristian art Another major contribution was his seminal work on the chemical composition
- it is possible to find an art originated both in stone carving and in pictorial decoration: the tequitqui or indochristian art a kind of style made by
- published research on the aesthetics and iconography of pre - Columbian and Indochristian art Nahuatl linguistics, and the rise of the Virgin of Guadalupe cult
- particular Christian art known as Indochristian art In addition to indigenous art the development of Latin American visual art was significantly influenced
- the ca. 1530 Aztec - Spanish Indochristian sculpture La Virgencita del Nuevo Mundo as among the first New World works of art Among notable collections
- 17th and 18th centuries and was almost exclusively focused on the religious art of the Catholic Church in the country. Characterized by a mastery of the
- in 1583, the one that marks a first moment of the development of Cuzqueño art This Jesuit introduces in Cusco one of the fashionable currents in Europe
- Christian and Indian symbols has been described as Indocristiano or Indochristian art Inspired by their Franciscan spirituality and Catholic humanism
- Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Academia Antartica Colonial
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